The history of geothermal dates back to 4th July 1904 when Prince Piero Ginori tested the first geothermal power generator in Larderello, Italy. This was a means to find new ways to generate electricity due to an increase in demand. From then on, geothermal power production became widely known, but not quite adopted.
In geothermal power production, there are pipes dug deep into the ground so that the hot water that is trapped inside the earths crust rises up as steam to rotate turbines just with its sheer pressure. The motion from the turbines is then transferred to generators which convert it from mechanical energy to electrical energy. The electrical energy then is then transmitted to electric grids where it is distributed to end consumers who use it as electricity in homes and businesses.
If you're wondering where this hot water comes from, then you might want to know a few things about geothermal reservoirs. Simply put, they are large pools heated by magma underground from the earth's core. Temperatures in the earth's core rise above 4000°C. The liquids which rise above the surface are formed in the crust where temperatures are higher than 350°C, but because of these high temperatures, they almost always come out in gaseous state first. In fact, what we usually see as geysers and hot springs are merely cooled down forms of the superheated fluids. In essence, geothermal power production deals with harnessing the steam and converting its kinetic energy to mechanical energy and finally to electric energy.
The cost of a constructing a geothermal power plant is far higher than the cost of constructing an oil rig. Physically, geothermal power plants look more complex than oil rigs because they require a lot more apart from the turbines that will convert the kinetic energy in steam to mechanical energy and then to electrical energy. The reasons for these high costs are obvious as well. The labor required, for instance, is more expensive than the one that is required when setting up an oil rig. In addition, factors such as drilling costs also play a big role too.
However, after construction, the costs incurred are rather minimal. The cost of construction of a geothermal power plant could be as low as $3400 per kilowatt installed and for small-scale power plants, this figure could be lower at $3000. This is in comparison to other renewable energy sources like hydroelectric power which costs far more. While it is generally accepted that construction of geothermal power plants is more expensive than the construction of oil rigs, it's important to note that its costs varies from one project to another depending on the size of the plant and even the local environmental policies.
With regard to construction time, geothermal power plants also take some considerable time to build. According to the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), a new geothermal project takes between 3 to 5 years to start producing electricity. Taking a stepwise strategy for development, the construction takes about 6 years. This comprises of 3 years for reconnaissance, surface exploration and test drilling and 3 years for production drilling and power plant.
Geothermal power is recognized globally and has a lesser negative impact to the environment than other renewable sources. Despite that, it's used by less than 2% of the world's population. This is because geothermal is location-specific since it can only be tapped in specific areas.
Despite its unavailability in most regions, the future potential for geothermal energy is bright. Research shows that 10,000 meters below the earth's surface, there's a high amount of heat which when tapped, can produce more than 50,000 times the energy that would be obtained from fossil fuels. This is where the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) comes in. EGS is a technology that geologists and geothermal experts are using to drill into potential geothermal sites. The system works by pouring fluids into the rocks to induce the geothermal process when the rocks are fractured and the liquid seeps through. The resultant effect is that heat is brought to the surface and in turn produces steam which is then harnessed to produce electricity.
In Europe, for example, only about 2.5GW has been tapped, but with EGS, the power that can be produced increases to about 6,500GW. That said, the EGS hasn't been without problems. Since the beginning of its use, cases of earthquake and earth tremors and even fracturing of the rocks when the water heats up too fast have been experienced. When asked, the geothermal experts said that the quakes can be prevented by drilling at the right positions during the start of a project. Should the EGS project become mainstream there's going to be a lot more power than we actually need.
It would be unfair to talk about the potential for geothermal power without reviewing the countries that can actually make geothermal power the norm. Geysers is perhaps one of the many geothermal power plants that you'll often come across. Located in the western state of California, Geysers was perhaps the first plant to be constructed in the US, the same country which also produces the largest power (3,591MW) as of 2018. Despite this, geothermal power only contributes about 0.3% of the country's total energy. Iceland, on the other hand, is a country with a total geothermal power output of 755MW but contributes up to 30% of this energy to its national grid. This makes it one of the few countries to widely adopt this renewable source of energy.
In South East Asia, Philippines began construction of geothermal power plants in 1977, and over the years, the country now produces up to 1,868MW which is used by 27% of the country. This made it secure the third rank in the list below in terms of geothermal energy production globally. Kenya has a capacity of 676MW making it the first African country to make it on the top 10 list. The country is in 9th position in the world in terms of geothermal energy production and contributes to more than 51% of the country's electricity.
As of 2018, the countries with highest geothermal energy outputs include:
All other countries have a cumulative value of 960MW making the countries on this list stand out. Currently, the energy is used in 24 countries and another 70 are constructing geothermal power plants or are using it in small scales. As technology improves, more countries are finding new ways of exploiting their geothermal energy potentials. With proper technology and incentives from their governments. The high initial cost required to set up a geothermal power plant is what makes most countries, especially developing ones, reluctant to harnessing this renewable energy.
To the common person, geothermal power plants are all the same and are indistinguishable, but there are actually three types of geothermal power plants in existence today. The type of plant used for a particular region will depend on how hot the resource is and how much geothermal energy is available.
These are the oldest and have been in use for more than 100 years. A pipe is placed deep in the geothermal well which then facilitates the flow of hot liquids and steam upwards to rotate a turbine which then converts the mechanical energy to electrical energy. This type of geothermal power plant is suitable for wells with high liquid temperatures.
These are suitable for wells which generally have lower temperatures than those being used in dry steam plants. They are more common because there aren't so many geothermal wells that have naturally occurring high temperature steam. The liquid from the earth's crust usually rises from the well and to the surface similarly to dry steam power plants. As the pressure of the liquid reduces, it is converted to steam which then passes through the turbine to be converted to energy.
Binary plants use two vessels with different boiling points hence the name binary. The first vessel contains the hot water from the well. The water rises up the well and flows through a heat exchanger to the vessel. The second vessel contains a fluid of lower boiling point such as butane. After it flows through, it vaporizes since it has a higher boiling point and the steam is relayed to the turbines to produce electricity. This process is not so common but has a high probability of use in future because it can be used in locations that are far from geothermal hotspots. In addition, the lower temperatures used in the process may reduce cost of production.
There are various ways geothermal energy is used in various countries around the world. In ancient times, people near the fields used to fetch the water directly from hot springs for bathing, cooking and other chores around the house and even skinning their game – a practice which continues to date.
People also use geothermal energy for other reasons depending on the needs and their geographical location. In Iceland for example, residents have installed heat pumps and whole districts have direct heating systems to warm their houses during winter.
The government even relies on the geysers to melt the snow in the estates which makes life comfortable for its citizens. Some countries are also using geothermal to heat up greenhouses to facilitate the growth of "fragile crops" or even to ensure they grow during the extremely cold seasons. From roses grown in Kenya to citrus trees and other vegetables in Hungary, many organizations are slowly coming to the realization of the benefits of heated greenhouses for farming.
Fish farms are also using this energy to heat up their farms to protect the tropical species from winter seasons since it affects their lifespan. In Netherlands, the government has built bike roads powered with geothermal energy to avoid the risks caused by ice during cold seasons. While this can be categorized under electricity generation, it is rather unique as it is not such a common use especially in countries like the Philippines and Kenya.
Another use is for electricity generation which is actually the most mainstream use. Most countries which are harnessing geothermal energy are using it to provide electricity for their citizens. For some, it is too low, so they use in small-scale or merely for the industrial sectors. For others, like the top 10 that had been listed earlier, production is high enough to power homes and businesses and even export some of the electricity to neighboring countries.
All in all, it's safe to say geothermal has little to no negative impacts to the environment. When it's being produced, some chemical compounds like oxides of Sulphur may get released into the atmosphere which can in turn be harmful to both human beings and the environment.
However, it has less than 5% carbon footprint in comparison with the emissions from fossil fuels. In addition, there are set measures that limit the harmful effects of these toxic gases as well. For example, steam is usually filtered of the harmful gases before it is let into the turbines, making it somewhat less harmful to the environment. While it may be expensive to initially set up a geothermal energy plant, its contribution to clean energy cannot go unnoticed.
Presently, the main downside to geothermal energy generation in comparison with another renewable source of energy like solar energy is the fact that it's not available in all areas. As such, not everyone can reap the benefits of geothermal energy in their countries. However, it may not take long before developing countries that shied away from geothermal energy production come to terms with the fact that it is a far cleaner and more reliable renewable source of energy.
Wind energy is one of the most developed forms of renewable energy, and it ideally revolves around the kinetic energy that is produced because of the effect of air currents. During a sunny day, heat from the sun warms up the air which gets lighter until it rises above cold air. The endless cycle between warm air rising to the top and cool air moving to the bottom is what in turn creates wind.
Wind power is harnessed using wind turbines. These turbines are typically large motor blades attached to a generator which are placed on a long support stand. Physically, they look like household fans, but the only difference is that while the fans use electricity to propel air, the turbines generate electricity when wind blows through the fans that are connected to the turbines. The wind energy is transformed from kinetic to mechanical energy which is then converted to electricity usable in homes. Also worth noting is that there are two ways of harvesting wind power.
This means that the turbines are installed on land on a favorable landscape for wind harvesting. The main advantage of onshore harvesting is that it's a lot cheaper since there's no complexity in installing of turbines. The main downside of onshore though, is the noise that comes with it. Turbines can get really noisy, and they have been known to cause discomfort for some people.
This is where the turbines are located in the lake or sea to generate power to mainland. The main downside to this is the cost of setting up. The turbines are set up spanning a large area in the sea which makes it expensive to install. They'll need to be firm, to withstand the turbulent storms, to ensure that they always work properly and among other things, have a positive impact to the environment.
While the setup is costly, offshore wind turbines have better advantages. One, is the noise will be far away from homes meaning they won't affect people. Two, the death of birds and bats will be minimized. Three, since it's located in the sea, it's easier to harness since most of the landscape is flat unlike on land where there are terrains and hills, and even high-rise buildings which can reduce the amount of wind.
Wind, just like other renewable energy sources, supplies more energy than market demand. The main downside is that there are very few established ways to store wind energy for future use. First, is its unpredictability, especially in areas where wind is not always constant. As such, storage of the electric energy produced from wind will be paramount. This uncertainty, coupled with how it's a lot more powerful during the night than day, are some of the reasons to store power for later use. In areas where wind is constant, however, electric power generated from the turbines can be fed into the power grid directly.
In domestic cases, it's quite easy because there are lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries to store that extra power. These high-density batteries are increasingly getting advanced as the days go, making them easier to manage. Even at industrial level, companies have tried using large scale batteries to store energy, but the effects have not been so favorable. Cases of battery blow ups due to difference in voltage have been experienced. Also, batteries of this magnitude are expensive and hazardous to some extent not to mention they are not environment friendly (especially if they're disposed).
Despite that, there are some methods that industries are using to save large scale power:
This is where excess power is heated and compressed to air to be stored in underground caverns or large tanks above the ground. The compressed air is burnt along with fuel to change it to mechanical energy which will then be used in generators as electrical energy when the demand for power arrives.
This works by producing hydrogen with excess power in order to burn it by combining with water through a process called electrolysis. This is a smart approach though the greatest drawback, like all the others, is the initial investment needed.
This is where water is pumped upwards in order to use it downhill again. The main downside to this is the initial investment to be used and also the fact that it requires a hill or high ground where there's large amounts of wind and also a hydro power plant nearby or large water bodies. Even without water, hills and wind are almost mutually exclusive. Add the two mills needed (hydro and wind) for installation and you'll realize this is an expensive approach. This method is common in hydroelectric dams. While at the moment large scale storage of wind power is not stable, the future is filled with optimism since some companies are currently trying new ways to make it work.
The wind turbines have rotor blades which convert kinetic energy to mechanical energy through the rotor shaft and then to the generator. The energy is transferred as the rotor spins and the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy in the generator. It's then transferred to the electrical company substations which step it up to a higher voltage for distribution to homes and institutions.
Traditionally, windmills were used to pump water used for livestock and farming. Even in recent years, people still use them to pump water in communities and countries. The windmills used for pumping water are easier and more efficient than those used for electricity.
The wind propels the rotor blades which in turn move to produce motion or kinetic energy. This motion then facilitates the movement of a rod inside the well or borehole that pulls water into dedicated cylinders until the water is forced up the pipe and is ready to be fetched. Repetition of this process results in free-flowing water.
Wind power has equally been crucial in transportation. Long ago when there were no turbine-powered ships, people used wind power to sail and navigate the sea. The trade winds released energy that propelled the ships and their cargo across oceans. In recent years, modern sailors have seen the benefits of using wind power too. They have installed large kites to act as propellers which save a lot of fuel in the long run.
While in the past windmills were used to process grains like millet, in recent years they can be used to process foods in large scale for example wheat flour. Thanks to electricity and ease of installing several windmills, factories can now manufacture food in bulk in ease.
Several sports are propelled by wind for them to work. Sports like kite and wind surfing, sailing and kite boarding need to be in favor of the wind for you to practice. Some like kite surfing and sailing require stronger winds to enjoy the ultimate experience.
As you have noticed, you can use wind power in different ways. You can even use it to charge appliances in your home from small things like phones and laptops to bigger equipment like your lawnmower. If you have a stronger turbine which produces more power, then you can even use it for bigger things. Like solar, it's best to own a battery to store your energy for times when the wind speeds will be low.
Wind power is a clean renewable energy without effects associated with greenhouse gases such as coal. It is sustainable and friendly to environment and the effects associated don't cause any global warming. That said, the wind turbines have some negative impact on the environment.
The first wind turbines that were installed cause a lot of death to birds and bats that flew around. This is because they didn't consider the rotating blades could have any negative impact to the birds. The modern wind turbines though, have put that into consideration and have predatory sensors installed to prevent the birds from getting close to them. While there are no estimated figures, it's presumed that those deaths are less than those caused by humans either by hunting and shooting.
Some people find lands with wind turbines to be beautiful while others find them another negative impact on the environment. They only see machines that are ruining the natural landscape. Turbines, especially in historical and tourist places, can be an eye sore since they're disrupting the normal view of the place. Since most wind farms are private, the places have even been set as tourist hotspots where you're taken a guided tour around. You can even find it's a camping and hiking venue where you'll enjoy some of your favorite activities. Turbines which are made of the same height and length and are aligned may have a more beautiful landscape than those which are placed spontaneously.
It's estimated that a turbine in a 300m range will produce about 45dB which is slightly higher than the noise of a refrigerator. This means that if you're in a place closer to wind turbines, you'll be affected than someone who's 1.5km from a wind farm since at that distance the noise is barely audible. Some people reported to experience negative health effects that were caused by the turbine noise.
Engineers handled that and designed modern wind turbines to ensure that there's almost no noise made by turbines despite being close to your residence. They have sensors that measure the speed of wind so as to increase or decrease accordingly without necessarily producing a lot of noise.
This is when you're walking down the road then around you there are turbine blades rotating thereby affecting your eyes. The reflection, on the other hand, is when the blades reflect under the sun causes them to shine brightly and momentarily blind you. The changes in light intensity caused by the turbines is a bother to some people especially when the sun is too bright, and the blades are rotating fast. However, engineers easily solved this problem by choosing a better finish for turbine edges.
Since large amounts of land need to be cleared for those wind farms to be created, the previously existing animals are forced to move to a safer place. The displacement of these animals could make them highly exposed to their predators. On the flip side, the land used by wind farms could be used for other activities as well. Since over 90% is never used, it could be maximized for agriculture, for animal grazing or even just left as an open space.
When the farms are set up near army bases the turbines can have negative impact since they may lose control over an aircraft due to loss of signal near the farm. This means that the wind farms have limits as to where they can be built to avoid overlap with other institutions.
While the negative impacts may make it seem like wind is not a great renewable energy, it helps to know that these are not effects of wind energy. These are the effects of the turbines which propel the wind. If technology is right, these effects are manageable and with time will improve. Some of them have already been corrected which makes us hopeful that the current problems facing the turbines will be non-existent in a few years.
Also, wind is an energy that can easily be substituted with other types of energy. For example, you may find that in your area it's sunny in some seasons and other seasons the wind is high. You can install both solar and wind systems to tap both of them when they're in high production. This is great for the person who wishes to install the two types for maximum power harnessing.
Residential solar energy has certainly not been a new thing, but it's not until recent years that most people started taking note of its advantages. The reasons have been varied ranging from wanting to reduce the carbon footprint in the environment and going the natural way with less pollution to reducing their electricity bills, which most people choose as the best. In some places, you're able to save as much as $300 per month in electricity bills which is quite a large amount over the long haul. If you're an aspiring solar energy homeowner and would like to know more before committing, below are some pointers to guide you.
For starters, it is worth mentioning that solar energy can be harnessed in two different ways. These could be the extraction of thermal energy which aids in processes such as cooking and water heating or it could be in electricity production. For the thermal energy, solar radiation is the key element whereas for electric energy production, light is of greater interest. Solar panels work by allowing particles of light from the sun called photons to knock off electrons from atoms which in turn generate an electric flow. Deep within solar panels are smaller units commonly called photovoltaic cells usually made of silicon. All these are linked up together such that with more exposure to the sun, more electric current can be generated from the solar panel which is then stored in a battery for later use. In home settings, inverters are used to convert the stored energy from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) which is what we normally use.
There are many ways you can use solar energy at home.
The cost of installing always varies from one person to another. This is because of different factors like the size of a house, the types of panels you want to use, how much energy you use in your household among other things. Things like the installation company you choose will also affect the total cost. Let's look at these factors in detail and what they really mean
The shape and size of your house will determine how much you pay for set up. For example, a house with a flat roof which can accommodate large panels easily may require less tinier panels which leads to a cheaper cost. Equally, a house with a small usable area; either due to the shape of the roof or other factors, may require smaller panels which will translate to a more expensive cost since it'll require more of them.
A house that uses 300KWh per month and a house that uses 1000KWh per month will be billed according to their energy usage. The amount of energy you use will be calculated for you during installation. On the other hand, you too can get an idea of how much energy you require with a simple calculation. Just take your electrical bills for at least the past 12 months and add all of them to get the total amount of electricity you use in a year. Divide this sum by 12 to know what's the average you spend in a month. You can go even further, by dividing the figure you get from above by 30 to get your daily average.
For example, if your annual energy is 4800KWh, you'll divide this by 12 to know how much you spend in a month. Which is 400KWh per month. To calculate how much energy you use in a day, you'll divide the 400KWh by 30 days and find out that your average usage per day is 13.3 KWh (Kilowatts per hour).
If you live in a cloudy region, then there won't be a lot of sunlight hitting your solar panels. This would require you to have more panels to increase the surface area needed to harness the amount of power you need for your use.
Solar panels are made differently, and that means you would have to choose one that best suits your needs. If you're installing per square foot, the basic expected wattage is 2 Watts for every square foot. This means that a house of 1500 square feet will need about 3000 Watts. Depending on the type of panel used, this may equal 12-18 panels and translate to an average of 16 panels for the house. The price per watt is averagely $5.47. So, for a 1500sq foot roof, we would be looking at $16,400. Of course, this is a very subjective figure depending on the type of panels you use and even the company you hire. Some companies charge as much as $4,000 more. So before buying, compare the rates between installers in your area. It's best to remember that the company that can pay most for advertising doesn't necessarily mean it's the best.
It's understandable to ask this question considering that the price from accredited installers can seem high. If you have an experienced person who's skilled enough, he/she can help you with the sizing calculations, planning, and even installation. He/she could even design for you how you want to install the panels depending on the size of your roof. However, you are still encouraged to contact an accredited solar installer for wiring and metering of your energy consumption.
It's necessary to make a thorough analysis as before setting up your home solar system. When you're choosing a manufacturer, inquire whether they offer replacement for batteries and bulbs. This can go a long way because if you're committing to a long-term plan, you want to know how you'll relate with them sometime down the road. If they don't offer replacement, check your options should you choose to proceed with them. Also, it's necessary to check your home's location and landscaping.
Homes in smooth terrains which are not covered by shade or affected by weather will generate more power than homes which are covered by shade. Solar energy is ideal in places that experience lots of sunny weather. This means that places which experience the occasional sunlight or extreme weather changes may need alternate options.
Hydropower is perhaps the most common and widely-used source of renewable power. Because of this, hydroelectric power has been known for more than 2000 years. During that time, ancient Greeks would use water wheels to grind grains to flour – a practice that the Chinese dynasty of 150AD did as well. Though rudimentary, it paved way for the first conception of the movement of turbines thanks to the kinetic energy present in free-flowing water.
Centuries later there was no innovation in hydro power until about the 1750s when French engineer Bernard Forest de'Belidor wrote a book about hydro (L'Architecture Hydraulic), but most people still fancied using mechanical hydropower for milling and pumping. However, in 1832, Michael Faraday took it upon himself to conceptualize the modern-day hydroelectric power. It took more than 50 years for his invention to come to fruition. It took 46 years for William George Armstrong from Northumberland, England to take up Faraday's work and use hydroelectric power to light up his art gallery with the help of a single lamp.
After that successful project, countries begun constructing dams to produce large scale electricity to power the ever-increasing factories. In 1882, the first hydroelectric power station was constructed in Appleton, Wisconsin, USA. The station produced 12.5KW. In the next 2-3 years there were about 45 stations in USA and Canada and 7 years later (1889) the stations increased to more than 200 in US alone.
Most countries continued to construct stations because of increasing demand, and in 1905 China constructed a 500KW power plant. The Hoover Hydroelectric Dam in Colorado was built in 1936 producing 1,346MW which at that time had the highest capacity. The production was increased to 2,080 MW later on but was surpassed by the Grand Coulee Hyrdoelectric Dam in 1942 which had a capacity of 6,809MW.
During these years more hydroelectric stations were set up around the world and in 1984 the largest dam in the world, Itaipu, was constructed in Brazil with a power capacity of 14,000MW. In 2008, China built the Three Gorges Dam which has a capacity of 22,500MW making it the largest hydroelectric dam in the world in terms of energy capacity.
With the figures mentioned above, it is easy to see why hydroelectric power is the most widely used renewable energy. China has the largest hydroelectric production with almost half of all world power coming from the Asian country. Some countries such as Paraguay and Brazil heavily rely on hydroelectric power such that 85% of their electricity is powered by the dams. In the US, 17% of its electricity is powered by hydro energy which also covers 70% of their renewable energy.
Since it relies on the kinetic energy of moving water, hydro power stations are constructed along large water bodies like falls, rivers and lakes. A dam is constructed on one side to raise the level of water then it's blocked by a gate to prevent it from rising over the top. Down below, a small entrance is created through the dam so that the water passes through it in high pressure.
A turbine is installed at this point so that as the water passes through it moves the turbines which are connected to a generator which turns the hydro energy to electrical energy. The electrical energy is then ready to be transmitted to substations and finally to our homes as electricity. Back at the dam, after the water passes through the turbines, it simply goes back to the river and flows as usual.
Rising economies are heavily investing in construction projects, and despite the huge sums they keep pouring for the development of their countries, they also require cheap and reliable sources of energy. Hydroelectric power gives them just that. Even though initial costs may be high, it is usually worth the effort because such projects are usually long-term and their return on investments will bring positive results in their countries. This is true because hydropower is cheaper than the oil and gas and the because it is readily available. These are just some of the reasons why most countries go the hydroelectric power way.
Since most high-profile investors are also vying for green energy production, top banks and institutions have been lending money for the development of hydroelectric power making most projects to pick up pace. More than $2 billion has been spent on such projects to ensure the projects are fully funded. This has ensured most projects, especially those that had stagnated to pick up and be completed thereby producing power and promoting the economies of those countries.
There have been several international summits and conferences to create awareness about hydroelectric energy. In these meetings, the benefits and disadvantages of hydropower have always been highlighted in contrast to other sources of energy such as nuclear energy. Since the pros surpass the cons, the agreements have concluded that hydropower is worth the shot. Some of the notable reasons highlighted include the fact that it is renewable, cheap, and widely accepted.
This means that it will never get depleted and has very little carbon emissions on top of being sustainable. It's also easier to construct compared to others like geothermal. In addition, since it is used in most countries all over the world, it is also widely accepted unlike other sources of energy such as nuclear energy which will be met with skepticism especially since disasters such as the Chernobyl accident could always happen again.
When countries agree to trade, there is an increase in business activities which leads to increased demand for electricity especially in the manufacturing sector. The need to supply the growing industries with power has enabled them to turn to hydroelectric power as an environment-friendly source of electricity. Some countries request for international funding and others choose to build from their own pockets. Regardless, such trades are the driving factors for the increasing hydro power stations around the world.
For the most part, there's a lot of positive outlook due to untapped potential in most countries. Reports show that 71% of Europe has not yet tapped its hydroelectric power while in North America and South America, these figures stand at 75% and 79% respectively. Asia-Pacific region follows next with 82% and 95% of untapped power in both Africa and Middle East. That amounts to an average of 83% of global hydroelectric power which remains untapped. From this it's safe to say that even 60% of the energy is enough to power the whole world.
Despite this though, some countries have little growth due to having utilized a lot of their energy reserves already. A country such as Switzerland has already tapped 88% and Mexico follows with 80%. Other countries which use hydroelectric in large amounts include Norway, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Paraguay and Brazil. These countries rely on hydropower for up to 85% for their electricity.
Currently, hydroelectric power supplies almost 20% of the world's electricity needs and accounts for 70% of all renewable energy sources. North America and Europe are projected to have a slower rate than other parts of the world in future generation of hydro power. This is mainly because they have utilized more than the rest of the world. The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that by 2050 the world will be able to produce 15,000 Terawatts per hour (TWh) if current production is tripled.
Asia is poised to experience the highest growth in future with countries such as China, Brazil and India being on the leaderboard. Some countries in South East Asia are also experiencing substantial development. These countries include Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia which is the 6th largest global producer of hydroelectric energy. Indonesia has a potential to supply 0.39 million Gigawatts per hour (GWh) annually.
China produces highest amount of hydropower but utilizes 41% of its reserves. It has a capacity to produce 1.3 million GWh annually and India which is the second largest at 21% has reserves capable to produce 0.5 million GWh annually. Russia, on the other hand, has the highest power potential in the world and only utilizes 10% of its 1.5 million GWh annual potential. Sadly, Africa is projected to experience a slow growth in hydro power generation and the larger source of its electricity will still come from oil and natural gas in coming years.
It is apparent that hydro energy is important in many societies around the world, and it carries a lot of benefits with it. A good example is the Three Gorges Dam in Yangtze river, Hubei province in China. The power plant stretches over a 2.4Km piece of land and produces 84.7 TWh annually, but it was initially created to control floods that destroyed property worth $24 billion.
The production of electricity was thus a bonus point in addition to favorably changing the climate of the region. However, the Chinese dam wasn’t without problems. Millions of people had to relocate and lots of properties destroyed. Other challenges that hydroelectric stations face (and affect future growth) include:
So many power plants are being developed all over the world. Places like SE Asia which are constructing many at a go are experiencing shortage of skilled people to work with while the demand for more stations is increasing.
There are a lot of regulatory bodies and authorities that determine how the power plants will be constructed. Getting that permission to build takes a lot of time since it's not until a firm gets access that it can move along and build a power plant.
There are uncertainties in building a hydroelectric station and for these large-scale projects the cost is too daunting since most of the costs are upfront. After it's built the cost of operation and maintenance is decreased. The high risks associated are due to the fact the return investments are not clearly outlined until after construction which makes investors wary.
This is another challenge that firms wishing to build power plants have to face and one that affects the future of hydro. Some regions, especially in Africa, have low receptivity to investors which hinders the growth of this renewable source. Other ways this happens is when funds run low mid-level and no investors are willing to pitch in.
A case like the millions of people who were displaced in China when Three Gorges Dam was being constructed is among the many challenges that faces regions around dams. People will be forced to relocate, and the nearby forests will have to be cut down to create space for construction. Also, the fact that animals get displaced from their habitat is something environmentalists have questioned. Equally, there is also the risk of floods which can come about when a dam gives in.
Different regions face climatic issues in different ways. For example, despite having the highest power production, the Three Gorges Dam is sometimes outperformed by the Itaipu dam between Brazil and Paraguay. This is because there are some seasons where the lower water levels result in a low power output whereas Itaipu boasts a constant water supply. Drought and unclean water are other issues faced by residents near hydroelectric power plants and they threaten the future growth of hydro energy.
The issues outlined above can be solved by proper planning and with improved innovations. With the highly positive outlook in most regions in the world, then it's no doubt that these issues will have to be solved before moving forward. But despite the challenges, hydroelectric energy is projected to grow by 3-4% yearly till year 2050. This is a sign that the benefits of the energy far surpass the challenges facing geothermal energy, and that is why hydropower continues to dominate as the most preferred renewable source of energy.
With all the technological advancements that the world is experiencing, we have become dependent on every little thing that brings us comfort and convenience. Obviously, we can no longer live without electricity.
Thirty-seven percent (37%) of the total electric power supply in the US is generated from petroleum. It took millions of years before these petroleum sources came to be. Oil is a non-renewable source of energy and endless explorations is a sign that petroleum sources might not be enough for the demand in the near future. Good thing, we can generate electricity by harnessing the power of renewable energy sources - one of which is wind.
Wind energy has been used by ancient Egyptians for sailing, Chinese and Dutch for agriculture and Americans started using windmills for electricity since the 1800s. Technology helped us make this energy source accessible that we can install windmill generator kits in our homes. That guarantees years of savings on electricity costs and saving the environment too. We’ve shortlisted the best turbine kits to help you get started.
This DIY wind turbine kit offers an easy-to-install package at an affordable price. It is made with weather-resistant material Polypropylene and Glass Fiber. That makes Windmill Wind Turbine a choice for land and marine application.
This home wind turbine was also made in consideration of possible wind surges and voltage surge. It is equipped with an integrated automatic braking system and manual braking switch that will prevent overcharging of the battery.
It has a low cut-in wind speed that will allow the turbines to rotate even at a minimum wind speed of 6.7mph. This means that your turbines can still generate electricity even when the wind speed is low or inconsistent. This is also compatible with solar panel systems and can be easily connected as an alternate energy source.
What’s in the Box?
If you are looking for an entry-level residential wind turbine that is easy to set up, protect your battery from power surges and has its automatic brake system against sudden wind gust, this wind generator kit should be your top consideration. However, manage your expectations especially on its minimum cut-in wind speed. Unfortunately, it starts working at 12-14mph and not as advertised at 6.7mph.
Missouri Freedom II is a wind turbine on a mission to harness wind energy even from the lowest wind speed. This all-metal wind turbine is hot dipped galvanized and will not need any rust-proofing. Its hub is also zinc plated. The blades are also made with Raptor Generation carbon fiber and the whole system can last you up to 50 years of regular use.
An 11-blade turbine might sound unusual for a wind generator, but it works well on the Missouri Freedom II. The slim blades seem to be the secret for the turbine to run even on a low wind speed of 6mph – a video footage on Youtube actually shows an anemometer measuring this. An actual test of the turbine’s output shows it can generate approximately 1000 watts with 30mph wind speed. The maximum output of this wind generator is 2000 watts.
In 2018, an improved version of the Freedom II Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) came out. It is designed with a self-tightening cam-lock washer that prevents the blades from spinning on the shaft. The Missouri Freedom II 2000-Watt Wind Turbine is built to charge 12, 24 and 48 battery banks, depending on the variant you are purchasing.
What’s in the Box?
From the most robust winds of 125mph and the lowest speeds of 6mph, Freedom II is committed to free you from high electricity costs. The product manufacturer, with its new improvements for the 2018 release learned from the Freedom’s previous flaws. Incorporating a self-tightening cam lock washer will assure the buyers that earlier problems with the blades damaging the shaft will never happen again.
A good wind turbine generator should not be too heavy that it might topple nor too light that it feels flimsy. That’s precisely how Ista Breeze i-2000 was designed. Its metal body housing is made with aluminum and rotor blades are made glass fiber reinforced plastic that makes it durable yet light. The whole unit only weighs 25kgs.
The Ista Breeze i-2000 can easily generate 2000 watts of electricity at 12-14mph wind speed. It is also surprisingly quiet at 40dB despite its power and can run on low, medium and high wind speeds. If you are one of those who are worried about twisting cables, when using a wind turbine, this product assures the users it won’t happen. The power transmission goes through a slip ring that prevents wire problems.
This wind turbine has a maximized efficiency as it rotates to the direction of the wind to generate more power. Despite these capabilities, this wind generator is designed to be low maintenance.
What’s in the Box?
The Ista Breeze i-2000 is on the mid-range price point compared to the wind generator kits available in the market. The aesthetic appeal of this product also makes it appealing. Like any other wind turbines for home, it is essential to know the minimum cut-in speed of the equipment for it to work in your area efficiently.
Tumo-Int is a manufacturer of a wide range of wind turbines for home and industrial use. They offer a variety of products from 400W to 5000W energy production yield. The 1000w model was designed to work even on the lowest wind speeds with a startup of 5.6mph.
The triple blade turbine is durably made using Nylon Fiberglass material that can withstand wind speeds of up to 90mph. It also self-adjusts to the direction of the wind to capture maximum output possible. Another set of positives for this product is that it’s low-noise, low-vibration and low-maintenance.
Tumo-Int 1000w is paired with a Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller. This enables the users to remotely detect and control the generated voltage of the wind turbine.
What’s in the Box?
If you are in the lookout for a wind generator kit that will provide you the power to remotely view control its efficiency without too many accessories to set up, this product is the right one for you. Likewise, this is very easy to install and with the correct pole height, locations and cable connections, users can surely maximize the efficiency of the Tumo-Int 1000w.
Renewable energy sources like solar and wind can be seasonal and time-bound and there is no perfect way to maximize both than to go hybrid. Solar power can be harnessed during day time and summer while the wind blows at its highest speed at night and during rainy and winter seasons. GOW Wind Generator aims to be easily used together with a solar power setup.
This wind generator has a 3-blade and a 5-blade variant. The blades are built with carbon reinforced plastics. The wind generator's minimum cut-in speed is at 3.5mph which is really impressive. The maximum wind speed, however, is a low down at 45mph. GOWE 500w is suitable for land and marine use.
It comes with a hybrid controller that features voltage regulation and automatic voltage detection. It also prevents overcharge, deep discharge, wind turbine auto-brake and reverse current protection.
What’s in the Box?
A reliable hybrid-ready wind generator is a rare find. GOWE 500w Wind Generator looks really promising despite its low output compared with the earlier products. The capabilities of the controller that comes with it is also a plus factor. The only downside we see is the maximum cut-out speed that the blades can tolerate which may not go over 45mph.
A home wind generator is a piece of power-generating equipment that harnesses wind energy. It has a set of blades that rotate according to the wind speed. It usually has a small computer box inside that controls the blades to maximize the generated energy based on wind direction. There are smaller gears inside the box and these gears convert wind to kinetic energy. Energy then passes through a generator which will turn it into electricity.
This is on top of the list because this is the most critical factor to consider. If your electrical connection is grid-connected, you are currently dependent to local power cooperatives or producers all your electrical connections are designed for this type of connection.
Switching to wind energy will require you to go off-grid and you will be solely relying on wind to provide you electricity. But there are other options like a hybrid connection which combines wind and solar energy to produce electricity and generate and store electricity from whichever source is available. Wind is best relied on during rainy season and winter. While solar is there 3 out of 4 seasons of the year.
You may still stay grid-connected while enjoying wind power but this will entail a lot of money for the electrical modifications. You can look forward to making wind energy the primary source of electricity and your grid connection as the secondary one.
Consulting your electric cooperative can help you better assess your decision to switch or combine wind generator kits to your current source. They can also provide you estimates on the rewiring and electrical components necessary. Lastly, they can guide you in applying for tax credits once you decide to pursue using wind turbines.
There are a lot of wind generator kits that can start up on wind speeds as little as 3mph. But let’s be honest, that’s not potent enough to actually fill a battery and support your electricity needs especially if you will solely rely on wind energy.
As a rule of thumb, it is advisable to consistently test the wind speed in your area at least a year before deciding to purchase a wind turbine for your home. You need to make sure that you will constantly have 18mph wind speed to optimize the use of your generator kit.
The height of the mounting pole will affect the consistency of wind that will pass through the wind turbines. Any type of obstruction will affect wind speed and prohibit efficiency. Experts say that the height of the mounting pole should be twice as high as any nearest obstruction like trees, buildings, etc.
Another significant consideration is the space that you have in your yard or perimeter. Wind speed varies on every location and if your house is in a vast space, there is a higher chance of you getting as much wind power as you need. It is vital to identify the best part of your property that will be exposed to the strongest wind possible.
However, space is not all there is to consider when deciding where to place your wind turbine. You also have to do your homework checking your Homeowners Association’s rules and regulations on zoning. More importantly, review local laws and that might be prohibiting wind turbine installation in your area.
Although every wind generator kit would promise you that theirs is a “low noise” turbine, it will still boil down to the actual noise when its running and when gusty winds pass through it. Aside from reviewing the decibel rating of these wind turbines, check out some videos of actual running noise and decide if it is something you can live with.
Likewise, there are brands which market their turbines as suitable for roof mounting. But technically speaking, this is not structurally safe for your home. The vibrations these turbines can create can compromise the strength durability of your roof, ceiling and even the walls of your home.
You might probably know that 1/3 of the electric consumption in the US and possibly the world is powered by petroleum-derived electricity. Wind energy is instantly available and renewable. It just needs a little work and a little investment for it to be harnessed. But that investment can actually last you for a minimum of 15 years up to 50 years if the components are properly maintained and used under normal conditions.
Shying away from petroleum use can prevent digging oil drilling in land and in the sea that disturbs the natural habitat of animals and pollutes the sea and the air. Using wind turbines will not require gas or coal and will not be harmful to the environment.
You must be wondering if the investment for a wind generator kit and its installation would actually be worth it when you sum up all the savings that the manufacturers promise you. Your local electric cooperative will be able to help you with this comparison. Switching will not only let you save on electricity cost for a year or so. This will go on as long as your wind turbine stands and rotates.
Aside from savings on electricity cost, another benefit of switching to wind turbines is the tax credit you can enjoy for using an alternative source of energy. Same perks apply to those who use solar. As for the computation of tax credits, your local tax office can provide you with the tax bracket depending on your dependence on an alternative source of electricity.
No doubt turning in to wind energy can be most beneficial for the consumers considering the savings on electricity and the tax credits you can enjoy from it. The decision to entirely or partially switch will rely on the factors that we have presented like the wind speed, zoning restrictions and the type of connection that you have. It will take a lot of research and comparison, but we are hoping that this article was able to help you jumpstart that decision-making process by presenting the best windmill generator kits and how each one can make choosing wind power a breeze!
Among the trending movies on Netflix nowadays is “The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind.” It is a story about a boy who helped save his family and his whole village from famine by building a wind turbine. This is a wake-up call about the importance of taking advantage of the renewable sources of energy around us.
Wind power has been used for thousands of years now and in the modern world, it still plays a vital role in supplying at least 11% of electricity in the US. You can add more to it if you start generating electric supply for your home from wind energy through the use of readily-available wind turbines. Check out this buying guide and reviews of the 10 best wind power generators for home use today.
Automaxx offers a 600w, mid-level power turbine that is perfect for off-grid use. Off-grid simply means that you don’t depend on the local electric cooperative for the electrification of your property and will solely use renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or hybrid.
This is an easy-to-install wind turbine that has triple fiberglass blades and a 4.3 ft. rotor which is coated with weather-resistant paint and will not rust or corrode. The whole system is lightweight at 31lbs. The minimum cut-in speed of this windmill is 4.5mph and will reach its full capacity at 6.7mph.
It has an automatic braking system through its digital MPPT Charge Controller that is included in the package. This also prevents overcharging of batteries while generating the maximum power output.
What’s in the Box?
Bottom line :
If you are looking for an entry-to-mid-level wind generator that will automatically control output and prevent power surges in your battery, you are looking at the right product. This is perfect for first time users who want to eliminate too much guesswork and complicated setups for wind speed and output measurements.
If you are among those who are easily impressed by materials and design, Missouri Freedom II is here to satisfy that. It is built with durable components, like the 11-blade turbine which is made with Raptor generation carbon fiber. The blades will stand strong even at 125mph wind speed.
Its permanent magnet generator can quickly turn up a 2000-watt maximum output, isn’t that powerful? This is attributed to the rare earth magnet rotor inside the generator. The rotor also contains twice as much copper than any other competitor’s rotors which translates to more power.
Freedom II is also an improved make and technology from the Missouri brand. They designed this model with a self-tightening cam-lock washer that stabilizes the hub to avoid any blade accidents. There have been reports of this occurrence in the earlier models.
What’s in the Box?
This product seems like it is indeed built to last. It will not rust nor corrode. It can withstand even the strongest winds at 125MPH and has been improved based on previous design flaws. If only it would run on a wind speed slower than 6MPH, it would have beaten its other competitors to the core.
Some locations may not have robust wind speeds all year round. If you feel like you will not be able to generate as much electricity through a wind turbine alone, it might be best to combine it with solar energy. That’s exactly how ECO LLC 800w Wind-Solar Generator came to be.
This wind-solar generator kit is a combination of a 140W Poly Solar Panel with an optimum power voltage of 18V, 400W Wind Turbine Generator with a battery voltage of DC12V/24V and a 1000W 12V to 110V Off-Grid Inverter. All of these will let you enjoy continuous electricity supply, rain or shine. The service life of this product is up to 15 year.
The wind generator kit has a triple blade turbine made with carbon fiber composite. Its start-up wind speed is as low as 5.5mph and the optimum output starts at 10.5mph. The solar energy is harnessed through three (3) pieces of solar panels. Both setups are connected to a waterproof wind and solar hybrid controller.
What’s in the Box?
The reliability will never be an issue rain or shine if you have resources that will work for you 24/7 like this hybrid wind and solar setup. It is nice that it comes as a complete set. The wind turbine appears a little flimsy which might be the reason why it is best compensated by solar energy. Overall, it is worth giving a shot.
If you are new to the alternative energy resources game, the setup can be overwhelming and intimidating. Looking at a product like Tumo-Int Generator Kit would make you feel at ease because it is straightforward and comes with a digital controller.
This turbine generator is lightweight and minimalistic in design. Its triple blades can generate 1000w of power at 12.5mph wind speed. It has a 5.5mph minimum cut-in speed. However, its maximum wind tolerance is only 78mph which may not be suitable at extremely windy locations. Since it is designed to be low-noise and low-vibration, it is perfect for those with a smaller perimeter or backyard.
The MPPT Controller that comes with this wind generator detects and shows the real-time voltage generated by the turbines. It also tracks maximum voltage to allow the system to provide the maximum output or charge to the battery without compromising safety.
What’s in the Box?
You can measure the efficiency of your wind turbines real-time through the digital MPPT controller that comes with this generator kit. The turbines will also efficiently run even on the lowest wind speeds. The only downside of this wind turbine kit is the ability to survive strong winds. The blades and the rotor might be too delicate for harsh weather conditions like a hurricane.
This wind generator turbine from Aleko is one of their latest models. Aleko is a known manufacturer of home and office improvement supplies. The WG410 model comes with a 6-piece glass-fiber reinforced blades that can start producing wind energy at a wind speed of 5mph. The main body is made with die cast aluminum and is fully-sealed, salt corrosion-resistant, and is IP65 qualified.
This product is perfect for home use, but is also suitable for mobile and tiny homes, caravans, boats, sheds and cabins. It is lightweight and can be mounted on high poles. It can generate as much as 400w of electricity which can be classified as an entry level output. A wind speed of 12.5 mph can produce 240w. Comparing it with other devices, this requires a more robust wind speed to attain the maximum output.
It is also equipped with a wind charge controller and strong magnets for optimum power supply. It can be used stand-alone or connected with a hybrid wind-solar setup.
What’s in the Box?
For most buyers, affordability is paramount especially when trying out something new. Aleko WG410 Wind Generator Turbine will appeal to the market who are trying out something but do not want to spend so much yet. It is ready for wind-solar power setup, it is definitely low-maintenance and easy to set up. It doesn’t cost much, but it doesn’t give much as well.
This wind turbine generator kit generates 400w wind energy through its 3-piece fan blade that starts producing energy at 5.5mph. The blades are made with carbon fiber composite and can overcome extreme weather conditions. It is also equipped with permanent magnet generators that are built to last and supply the maximum wind energy output possible.
The wind turbine’s power is complemented with the energy generation efficiency of the 6-panel 160w Poly Solar Panel. The solar setup is meant to complement the wind turbine and generate solar power during the day time while the windmill makes wind power 24/7, whenever the wind speed reaches the ideal startup for the turbine. It also comes with a 1500w sine wave inverter that connects the whole system to your home appliances. It offers over temperature, overload and AC output short circuit protection.
The whole setup can be used with the on-grid, off-grid system. It comes with a waterproof IP-65 junction box for advanced dust and water protection and guarantees a long service life. Aside from home use, the setup will also work on boats, greenhouse, sheds and industrial applications because it is salt-corrosion and humidity resistant.
What’s in the Box?
If you are looking for a system that will completely and independently rely on renewable sources of energy, wind and solar setup must be the right one for you. This can also be an excellent on-grid back up if you are not ready to fully convert. It is on the high price point, but with all the positive attributes, Eco-Worthy might be worth your money.
VEVOR Wind Turbine is a small and simple wind turbine that is perfect for small off-grid installations. It is lightweight, low-noise, low-vibration and it makes it an attractive off-grid power source for small homes, sheds, garages and even marine applications. It has three carbon fiber composite blades that only needs 5.5mph of air to startup. A constant wind speed of 8mph and faster is necessary to maximize this wind turbine.
Its permanent magnet generator guarantees stability and supports efficient output of 400w. It is also integrated with an automatic braking system that will ensure that sudden high wind speeds will not affect the generator. It is also ready for hook-up with various accessories such as a digital multimeter and hybrid installations.
What’s in the Box?
If you are all about trying out what wind energy might bring you without spending too much, then VEVOR Wind Turbine is definitely a decent choice. There is not much to expect from it, but it meets the expectations on built quality. You must take into consideration the constant wind speed in your area before buying this product.
The whole wind-solar generator from A-Wonderful produces 500w of energy output by combining the power of a triple-blade 400W wind turbine and a 100w foldable solar panel. This impressive combination is made for 12V batteries but can also be connected with other panels and wired in series to charge a 24/48V battery.
The compact body is made with carbon steel and is protected by epoxy zinc-rich primer and polyurethane anti-corrosion treatment. The patented, permanent magnet rotor generator guarantees stability and regulates torque resistance whenever necessary.
The minimum cut-in speed for this wind turbine is 4.4MPH which is at par with other wind turbines. The rated wind speed is at 29MPH which is higher than the other brands’ requirements for the similar expected output. The good thing about this is that it has a high maximum wind speed tolerance of 111MPH. The brand offers an impressive warranty coverage of 5 years on materials and workmanship.
What’s in the Box?
It is easy to consider using a wind plus solar setup if you will look at the A-wonderful 500w Wind-Solar installation. It covers everything that is necessary for a hybrid installation. The only downside that we see is the rated wind speed requirement which seems to be higher than its competitors. If you live in a consistently windy area, this setup is truly worth the price.
This wind turbine generator kit is compact and lightweight. It is made with high-quality aluminum and stainless steel fittings, and these materials make it durable. The blade is built using premium and high-strength plastic with 30% carbon fiber and anti-UV material. It is also coated with a special material to prevent oxidation and corrosion. The whole unit is water- and sand- resistant making it marine-use ready.
The generator has a microprocessor control that regulates the current and voltage. It has a built-in magnetic circuit design to make the starting torque low and an integrated braking system to prevent strain and damage to the gears when the wind is too strong.
It can generate 400w of electricity at 26MPH wind speed. It has a minimum cut-in speed of 5.5MPH comparable to other wind turbines in the 3-blade category. It is quiet, low maintenance and has a wide range of use for home, office, commercial and industrial applications. The service life of this product under regular use is up to 15 years.
What’s in the Box?
Happybuy Wind Turbine may seem small but performs really well. The manufacturer specializes in these products and their wind generators are built to last long. This product is also affordable. The only downside is that it does not seem like it is hybrid-ready. The wind turbine itself is an excellent equipment and it might be a great addition to a solar setup.
Compact wind turbines seem to be a trend in wind generators. Npower 400w wind turbine will effectively work on generating electricity 24/7 even if you have low wind speeds in your area. It has a black triple-blade turbine that is marine-coated to prevent rust and to make it versatile for land and marine use.
It is built to run on the minimum wind speed of 5.6MPH and the maximum wattage will be attained at 28MPH. It can withstand winds as strong as 100MPH and is weather-resistant, so if you are in an area with a lot of thunderstorms, you don’t have to worry.
It is equipped with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Smart Controller that automatically cuts off charging on your 12V battery once it is full. It can also be used with 12V or 24V systems.
What’s in the Box?
NPower may be a new player in the wind generator production. In light of that, they have impressively designed a compact yet reliable wind turbine with an automatic controller. This is beneficial for the service life of both the turbine and your battery. It would have been better if the controller and the whole system were hook-up or hybrid ready.
As we have mentioned, this is an improved product after reports of flaws in the shaft's stability and durability. The company seems to have learned from those mistakes and kept the best features from the previous model, and reinforced everything else. It generates a lot of power and can withstand even the harshest weather.
First and foremost, the warranty coverage is impressive at 5 years. The wind turbine is well-built and the portability of the foldable solar panel will undoubtedly be appealing to buyers with space constraints. The set also comes with everything that you need for easy setup.